{"code":"24258","sect":"Centroam\u00e9rica","sect_slug":"centroamerica","hits":"1068","link":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/en\/202004\/centroamerica\/24258","link_edit":"","name":"Distance Learning Without Internet in Guatemala","slug":"distance-learning-without-internet-in-guatemala","info":"To slow the spread of COVID-19, the Guatemalan government suspended in-person classes in public schools for three weeks, as it contemplates transitioning toward a distance-learning model. Holding class from home, though, is a pipe dream for the four-fifths of households without internet access or adequate technology. The pandemic is exposing the chronic educational inequities and lack of wireless infrastructure facing the vast majority of Guatemalan schoolchildren.","mtag":"Inequality","noun":{"html":"Ricardo Marroqu\u00edn","data":{"ricardo-marroquin":{"sort":"","slug":"ricardo-marroquin","path":"ricardo_marroquin","name":"Ricardo Marroqu\u00edn","edge":"0","init":"0"}}},"view":"1068","pict":{"cms-image-000033365-jpeg":{"feat":"1","sort":"33365","name":"cms-image-000033365.jpeg","link":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033365.jpeg","path":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033365.jpeg","back":"","slug":"cms-image-000033365-jpeg","text":"<p>La Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica<\/p>","capt":"\u003Cp\u003ELa Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/p\u003E"},"cms-image-000033366-jpeg":{"feat":"0","sort":"33366","name":"cms-image-000033366.jpeg","link":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033366.jpeg","path":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033366.jpeg","back":"","slug":"cms-image-000033366-jpeg","text":"<p>Studies show that schools are often hotspots for contagion, as children are often asymptomatic carriers. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica<\/p>","capt":"\u003Cp\u003EStudies show that schools are often hotspots for contagion, as children are often asymptomatic carriers. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/p\u003E"},"cms-image-000033367-jpeg":{"feat":"0","sort":"33367","name":"cms-image-000033367.jpeg","link":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033367.jpeg","path":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033367.jpeg","back":"","slug":"cms-image-000033367-jpeg","text":"<p>A girl reads a text aloud in her native language. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica<\/p>","capt":"\u003Cp\u003EA girl reads a text aloud in her native language. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/p\u003E"},"cms-image-000033368-jpeg":{"feat":"0","sort":"33368","name":"cms-image-000033368.jpeg","link":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033368.jpeg","path":"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/images\/cms-image-000033368.jpeg","back":"","slug":"cms-image-000033368-jpeg","text":"<p>The elementary school in La Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica<\/p>","capt":"\u003Cp\u003EThe elementary school in La Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/p\u003E"}},"pict_main__sort":33365,"date":{"live":"2020\/04\/10"},"data_post_dateLive_YY":"2020","data_post_dateLive_MM":"04","data_post_dateLive_DD":"10","text":"\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EThis is an adaptation of an article originally published in Plaza P\u00fablica as \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.plazapublica.com.gt\/content\/covid19-la-educacion-distancia-en-un-pais-con-poco-internet\"\u003ECOVID19: La educaci\u00f3n a distancia en un pa\u00eds con poco internet\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EOn Saturday, March 14, Guatemalan president Alejandro Giammattei temporarily shuttered all schools until Monday, April 13, the day after Holy Week. This emergency measure, similar to those taken in other countries around the world, seeks to insulate schools from becoming yet another hotspot for contagion.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EThe move has brought the studies of roughly 3 million children and adolescents receiving a public education to an abrupt halt. As the date for resuming in-person learning approaches, public school teachers are confirming that the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) is ill equipped to lead a nationwide transition to distance learning, especially if social-distancing directives are extended beyond April 13.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDistance-learning without internet\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003E\u003C\/strong\u003EA local teacher in San Pedro Necta, Huehuetenango told Plaza P\u00fablica that the only option for at-home learning in her community was to pass out the school\u2019s short supply of textbooks, leaving instructions for parents on readings and exercises that children can do from home.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cHow does the government want classes to continue online when students have no Internet?\u201d she asked. \u201cI know my community; it\u2019s rare to find a family here with a TV or radio.\u201d\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EConducting virtual classes from home is simply not an option for rural youth. Just 19 percent of those over seven years old have access to a phone, computer, and Internet, and most of these select few are located in urban centers like Guatemala City (8.75 percent of all) and Quetzaltenango (1.21 percent), according to the 2018 National Survey of Living Conditions conducted by the National Institute of Statistics.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EFurthermore, only 17 percent of all Guatemalan households\u2014over half of these in Guatemala City\u2014have Internet access. In contrast, 70 percent\u2014some 2.3 million households\u2014primarily rely on television for information.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EJust as in San Pedro Necta, a teacher in Santa B\u00e1rbara, Huehuetenango says there is no Internet in his community, and few families have a TV or radio. They distributed printed materials through the parent-teacher associations so that students can complete some exercises remotely.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cStudents can call me with any questions, but most don\u2019t. Some send me paid texts asking to call them,\u201d he said. MINEDUC offers him no help, he admitted, to foot the costs of communicating with his students on his personal phone plan.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\t\t\u003Cfigure class=\"pict pict_land pict_move_posc 0 cs_img cs_img--curr rule--ss_c\" data-shot=\"pict\" data-hint=\"pict\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__pobj text-overflow\"\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/get_img?ImageWidth=1280&ImageHeight=853&ImageId=33368\" class=\"pobj\" style=\"max-width: 100%\" rel=\"resizable\" alt=\"The elementary school in La Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\" \/\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__line block edge--ss_lax edge--ss_rax padd--ss_l0x padd--ss_r0x line--ss_s0b lineh rule--ss_c\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"block-inline full-width align-middle lineh__rect tint-back--nake\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cfigcaption class=\"pict__text cs_img_caption folk_content typo_buttons line--ss_s0c line--ss_s0c--auto block full-width text-overflow rule--ss_l relative\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"__content block-inline full-width align-top tint-text--idle relative\"\u003EThe elementary school in La Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/div\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EThe decades-long erosion of public education\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EIn 2019, 2.9 million children and adolescents attended the public school system\u2014almost three-quarters of all enrolled Guatemalan youth, according to MINEDUC. In addition, 84 percent of all elementary school students attend public school. Today, the Covid-19 crisis has sent all of them home indefinitely.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EBienvenido Argueta, an education consultant, academic, and former minister of education under president \u00c1lvaro Colom, claims the school closures were a necessary measure, given that the government\u2019s chief concern should be shielding the population from infection.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EThat said, given the current structure of the school year, MINEDUC lacks the resources to adequately meet students\u2019 emerging needs this school year. \u201cThese are the consequences of the weakening of public education undertaken by the Ministry of Education since the \u00c1lvaro Arz\u00fa administration,\u201d claimed Argueta, referring to the former president of Guatemala from 1996 to 2000. \u201cJust like in the public health system, a move toward privatization has dominated the field of education,\u201d he continued.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EAccording to Argueta, the long-term push for privatization has prevented public educational institutions and their students from acquiring new technology. Despite certain targeted efforts, most of the student body lacks access to textbooks, let alone the computers, tablets, and smartphones required to attend virtual classes.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cYet again, private schools are offering the best opportunities,\u201d said Argueta of education during the pandemic, adding that students in urban centers with electronic devices have a clear advantage in adapting to remote learning.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ELearning is tough without the hardware\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EFe y Alegr\u00eda (Faith and Joy) is a private organization servicing sixteen thousand children and adolescents in 53 schools across 19 municipalities. Like many other non-governmental organizations providing services to those at risk of poverty and violence, its services are at increasing risk under the pandemic.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EMiquel Cort\u00e9s, program director and priest, claims that the organization formed a commission at the onset of the crisis, to adapt its pedagogy and guarantee continuity in its student services.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cThere are different levels of access to electronic devices and the Internet among our students,\u201d Cort\u00e9s commented. \u201cWe\u2019ve set up virtual learning environments with educational content such as videos, worksheets, and study guides,\u201d he continued.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\t\t\u003Cfigure class=\"pict pict_land pict_move_posc 0 cs_img cs_img--curr rule--ss_c\" data-shot=\"pict\" data-hint=\"pict\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__pobj text-overflow\"\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/get_img?ImageWidth=1280&ImageHeight=853&ImageId=33367\" class=\"pobj\" style=\"max-width: 100%\" rel=\"resizable\" alt=\"A girl reads a text aloud in her native language. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\" \/\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__line block edge--ss_lax edge--ss_rax padd--ss_l0x padd--ss_r0x line--ss_s0b lineh rule--ss_c\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"block-inline full-width align-middle lineh__rect tint-back--nake\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cfigcaption class=\"pict__text cs_img_caption folk_content typo_buttons line--ss_s0c line--ss_s0c--auto block full-width text-overflow rule--ss_l relative\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"__content block-inline full-width align-top tint-text--idle relative\"\u003EA girl reads a text aloud in her native language. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/div\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EAccording to Cort\u00e9s, enlisting parents to supervise students\u2019 work has been essential to this new learning model. Their biggest challenge, though, is reaching students without the proper devices and Internet access. With this group, they have had to lean on the government\u2019s online educational resources, which are also transmitted on local television and radio stations.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EThey then conduct outreach on the ground, equipping vehicles with loudspeakers to travel to communities without electricity and announce the arrival of educational resources, offer instructions and explain content. \u201cWe\u2019re concerned about education, but for now our top priority is tending to families\u2019 health and financial needs,\u201d he explained.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EBroader horizons at private schools\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EPrivate schools are better able to continue their classes remotely; many have taken advantage of internet-based platforms to press on with their learning modules.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EWhile few private schools teach elementary school, which deals with students from seven to 14 years old, the proportion of students attending private school in the upper grades is far greater. In 2019, for example, private schools took in 37 percent of elementary schoolers and 70 percent of students in the upper grades.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EDiana Brown, executive director of the Association of Private Colleges, a network of 145 schools, explains that they adapted their curriculum to digital platforms for the duration of the school closures.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cIt\u2019s not that we were totally ready, but we anticipated this crisis,\u201d said Brown. \u201cWe\u2019ve established communication through email, social media, and free virtual platforms to develop course content, and to the extent possible, we\u2019ve been able to do so.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\t\t\u003Cfigure class=\"pict pict_land pict_move_posc 0 cs_img cs_img--curr rule--ss_c\" data-shot=\"pict\" data-hint=\"pict\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__pobj text-overflow\"\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/get_img?ImageWidth=1200&ImageHeight=800&ImageId=33366\" class=\"pobj\" style=\"max-width: 100%\" rel=\"resizable\" alt=\"Studies show that schools are often hotspots for contagion, as children are often asymptomatic carriers. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\" \/\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__line block edge--ss_lax edge--ss_rax padd--ss_l0x padd--ss_r0x line--ss_s0b lineh rule--ss_c\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"block-inline full-width align-middle lineh__rect tint-back--nake\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cfigcaption class=\"pict__text cs_img_caption folk_content typo_buttons line--ss_s0c line--ss_s0c--auto block full-width text-overflow rule--ss_l relative\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"__content block-inline full-width align-top tint-text--idle relative\"\u003EStudies show that schools are often hotspots for contagion, as children are often asymptomatic carriers. Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/div\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003ECurrent circumstances require a great degree of flexibility, but even so, the association\u2019s primary task is ensuring curriculum development and student growth and learning.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EEach institution will report its curriculum development methodology to MINEDUC\u2019s departmental leadership, Brown outlined, adding that they plan to issue a diagnostic test to students when classes resume to evaluate students\u2019 learning gaps.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EPushing back the school year\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EWhen Giammattei suspended class for three weeks, he reassured schools that they could make up for lost instruction time in the future. Argueta sees extending the current school year to November or December as the only option to do so, given MINEDUC\u2019s inability to fully implement distance learning.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EBrown says the private sector is willing to follow the government\u2019s lead in extending their own school year, but argues that schools should go further, cutting out midyear vacations that usually take place for one or two weeks in June or July.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\t\t\u003Cfigure class=\"pict pict_land pict_move_posc 0 cs_img cs_img--curr rule--ss_c\" data-shot=\"pict\" data-hint=\"pict\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__pobj text-overflow\"\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"https:\/\/elfaro.net\/get_img?ImageWidth=1280&ImageHeight=853&ImageId=33365\" class=\"pobj\" style=\"max-width: 100%\" rel=\"resizable\" alt=\"La Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\" \/\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"pict__line block edge--ss_lax edge--ss_rax padd--ss_l0x padd--ss_r0x line--ss_s0b lineh rule--ss_c\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"block-inline full-width align-middle lineh__rect tint-back--nake\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/div\u003E\u003Cfigcaption class=\"pict__text cs_img_caption folk_content typo_buttons line--ss_s0c line--ss_s0c--auto block full-width text-overflow rule--ss_l relative\"\u003E\u003Cdiv class=\"__content block-inline full-width align-top tint-text--idle relative\"\u003ELa Primavera, Ixc\u00e1n, in the northern department of El Quich\u00e9.\u00a0Photo: Simone Dalmasso\/Plaza P\u00fablica\u003C\/div\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EArgueta emphasizes preserving core skills, such as basic mathematics, reading comprehension, communication, and language arts (with an emphasis on maternal language). To that end, schools should decide which learning materials are essential for student learning, while keeping in mind how MINEDUC can distribute them.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cThe government should share videos, learning guides, and worksheets, for example, through all the outlets at its disposal, including television, radio, and print. That said, distributing textbooks is most important,\u201d asserted Argueta.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003EBut as the present crisis wanes and classes resume, the task of shielding both classroom and household from Covid-19 will continue unabated.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E\u201cThey\u2019ll need to renovate schools to ensure that the student body at least has access to soap and water,\u201d alluded Argueta.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cbr\/\u003E\u003Cp dir=\"ltr\"\u003E*Translated by Roman Gressier\u003C\/p\u003E"}